Gender Differences in the Returns to Education in Peru

Activity: Unpublished and/or developing manuscriptsManuscripts sent to indexed journals or publishers


Women's education attainment has increased in recent decades, offering hope for gender equality within labor dynamics. Household surveys from 2004 to 2022 were used to provide an updated and comprehensive analysis of the gender gap in returns to education. At all levels of education, women exhibited a higher return rate. Heterogeneous effects are then analyzed by household expenditure quintiles, and between rural and urban areas. It appears that return rates are always higher in urban areas and for women, regardless of their location. When analyzing by household expenditure quintile, we find that returns increase with each quintile; however, men exhibit a higher rate of return in the fifth quintile. Despite higher returns for women, these figures are not sufficient to close the gender wage gap. A woman would need to accumulate 30 years of education to compensate for the income penalty associated with being a woman.
Period29 Jan 2024
Examination held at
Degree of RecognitionInternational