To manage lands locally for C sequestration and for emissions reductions, it is useful to have a system that can monitor and predict changes in soil C and greenhouse gas emissions with high spatial resolution. We are developing a C accounting framework that can estimate C dynamics and net emissions associated with changes in land management. One component of this framework integrates field measurements, inventory data, and remote sensing products to estimate changes in soil C and to estimate where these changes are likely to occur at a subcounry (30- by 30-m) resolution. We applied this framework component to a midwestern region of the United States that consists of 679 counties approximately centered around Iowa. We estimated the 1990 baseline soil C to a maximum depth of 3 m for this region to be 4117 Tg. Cumulative soil C accumulation of 70.3 Tg was estimated for this region between 1991 and 2000, of which 33.8 Tg is due to changes in tillage intensity. Without accounting for soil C loss following changes to more intensive tillage practices, our estimate increases to 45.0 Tg C. This difference indicates that on-site permanence of soil C associated with a change to less intensive tillage practices is approximately 75% if no additional economic incentives are provided for soil C sequestration practices. This C accounting framework offers a method to integrate inventory and remote sensing data on an annual basis and to transparently account for alternating annual trends in land management and associated C stocks and fluxes.