Box 1. Barriers to VSS adoption in developing countries: the case of Peru

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With the opening up of markets through free trade agreements (FTAs), Peru’s agricultural exports have flourished. The government has provided assistance to local producers to observe sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and overcome technical barriers to trade (TBTs). However, these are not the only challenges they face for market access; private standards may become the new “non-tariff” challenges particularly for smallholder producers. According to Curzi et al. (2020), regular SPS measures can enhance trade, but private standards (specific trade concerns, as they call them) can significantly reduce the ability to export, and more so for smaller firms than for the larger ones.
In addition, their study shows that the more widespread the use of private standards, the greater is the reduction of export volume and firms’ exit. Other studies, however, show inconclusive results.
Nonetheless, it is interesting to analyse VSS adoption dynamics in Peru, and explore whether other developing countries experience similar dynamics.
Idioma originalInglés
Título de la publicación alojadaVoluntary sustainability standards sustainability agenda and developing countries
Subtítulo de la publicación alojadaopportunities and challenges : 5th Flagship Report of the United Nations Forum on Sustainability Standards
EditoresMercedes Aráoz, Bernard Hoekman, Santiago Fernandez de Cordoba, Axel Marx
Lugar de publicaciónSwitzerland
Número de páginas1
EstadoPublicada - oct. 2022
Publicado de forma externa


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