Co-evolution and bio-social construction: The kichwa agroforestry systems (Chakras) in the ecuadorian amazonia

Daniel Coq-Huelva, Angie Higuchi, Rafaela Alfalla-Luque, Ricardo Burgos-Morán, Ruth Arias-Gutiérrez

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículo de revista revisión exhaustiva

27 Citas (Scopus)


Polycultured agrarian systems in Ecuadorian Amazonia (also called chakras or swollen gardens) are characterised by a market-oriented crop for the generation of monetary income, for example, cocoa, other agricultural products (e.g., banana and cassava), and livestock for family farm consumption. Moreover, a chakra is an outstanding example of agroforestry production, in which ecological, social and economic elements co-evolve from a set of close and strong connections. In this context, the conservation and transformation of their biological subsystems can be understood as the result of complex interactions between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors. In turn, such interactions are essential to provide food and monetary income to the indigenous community. Relevant agency capabilities exist that could cause an agroforestry system to take a different path of co-evolution, that is, towards greater or lesser sustainability associated with different levels of complexity. In conclusion, chakras have key ecological features that can mitigate the impact of human population growth in Amazonia. Additionally, chakras have their own processes of social self-regulation which enhance the possibilities of adaptation of Kichwa communities to changing environmental conditions, being essential elements in local food sovereignty, equitable gender relations and the respect of ancestral wisdom.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo1920
Número de páginas19
EstadoPublicada - oct. 2017

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Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the next research projects: (1) Agrofood chains in the Amazonia, funded by Secretaría Nacional de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Senescyt) of Ecuador; and (2) the annual internal grant 2016 promoted by the vice-presidency for research at Universidad del Pacífico (Lima, Perú).


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