X-factor estimation and controversies : the case of Lima´s airport

Research output: Working paper


In theory, X-factor regulation provides better incentives for cost reduction than previously widely-used rate-of-return regulation. However, a deeper look into how this factor is effectively estimated shows the regulator enjoys a great deal of discretion, especially when selecting the methodologies used to estimate its components. This paper describes how the X-factor is estimated in Peru and analyzes the main controversies (both theoretical al practical) that arose when the X factor for the country’s main airport was estimated. Conclusions are the following: i) careful planning of the concession process reduces the probability of unnecessary controversies when the X factor is estimated retrospectively, since this methodology requires data that needs to be collected at the time of the concession; ii) cost of capital estimation is a main source of controversies due to the subjective criteria used in its calculation and its impact in the final result; and, iii) transparent procedures improve the legitimacy of regulatory decisions, especially in contexts of limited public resources and weak institutions, typical of developing countries.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationPerú
PublisherUniversidad del Pacífico. Centro de Investigación
StatePublished - Oct 2013


  • Aeropuertos--Regulación


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