Urbanization patterns, information diffusion, and female voting in rural Paraguay

Alberto Chong, Gianmarco León-Ciliotta, Vivian Roza, Martín Valdivia, Gabriela Vega

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle in a journalpeer-review

7 Scopus citations


We use a field experiment to evaluate the impact of two informational get-out-the-vote campaigns to boost female electoral participation in rural areas of Paraguay. We find that public rallies had a small and insignificant effect either on registration or voter turnout in the 2013 presidential elections. Households that received door-to-door canvassing treatment were 4.6 percentage points more likely to vote. Experimental variation on the intensity of the treatment at the locality level allows us to estimate spillover effects, which are present in localities that are geographically more concentrated, which may favor social interactions and diffusion of information. Reinforcement effects on the already treated population are twice as large as diffusion effects on the untreated. Our results underscore the importance of taking into account urbanization patterns when designing informational campaigns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)323-341
Number of pages19
JournalAmerican Journal of Political Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We are grateful to Lorena Alcázar, Donald Green, Philip Keefer, Laura Schechter, the editors and three anonymous referees for comments and suggestions. Several seminar audiences provided useful feedback. Excellent research support was provided by Paul Arenas, José Camarena, Marcela Gutiérrez, María Lombardi, Walter Noel, Ana Palacios, Juan Pablo Ocampo, Daniel Velásquez, and Claudia Zavaleta. The IADB provided financial support theough the non-reimbursable Technical Cooperation # RS-T1301. León thanks the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the Severo Ochoa Programme for Centres of Excellence in R&D (SEV2015-00563) and grant ECO2011-25272. The standard disclaimer applies. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 63, No. 2, April 2019, Pp. 323–341


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