Agricultural activity is sustainable when it maintains and improves the health of soils, ecosystems, and people. Accomplishing these conditions is especially important in regions whose development is strongly linked to agricultural production, as is the case of rural Peru. In Peru's rural areas, 39% of the economically active population is engaged in agricultural activities, which, when combined with precarity and subsistence, are unequivocally connected to poverty. In Peruvian Amazonia, these negative socio-environmental conditions are aggravated by the processes of settler colonization, expansion of the agricultural frontier, and deforestation. Cocoa, an industrial crop that has expanded significantly in Amazonia and furthered producers' market connections, has also accelerated the rate of deforestation due to unsustainable soil practices.
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We are grateful for helpful feedback provided by the participants of the Brown Bag Seminar at Universidad del Pacifico and the researchers of the postgraduate program of Sustainable Development and Social Inequalities in the Andean Region (trAndeS) affiliated with the Freie Universitat Berlin and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru for their valuable comments during the conduction of this research. We especially thank the associations CAC Pangoa and Kemito Ene, Central Ashaninka del Rio Ene (CARE), and all the associate producers who participated in the survey. Thanks also to Arlynder Gaspar, for his valuable contribution in the translation of Nomatsiguenga and Ashaninka languages during the fieldwork.
This article is funded by the 2020 Fund of the Vice-Rector's Office for Research of Universidad del Pacifico.