Moving down the energy ladder: in-utero temperature and fuel choice in adulthood

Research output: Working paper


A growing literature shows that weather conditions during gestation can have persistent impacts on education and income, especially among females. However, the consequences of these impacts on behavior and choices during adulthood are still underexplored. To shed light on this issue, I use survey data for over 200,000 households in Peru and find that average temperature during gestation affects fuel choice during adulthood among women, with extensive margin increases in the use of dirty cooking fuels, but no changes in the likelihood of fuel stacking. Analysis of the mechanisms suggests that female head’s income may be a more important driver than education. Supporting this argument, I show that the effects of in-utero temperature disappear among female beneficiaries of a conditional cash transfer program.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEstados Unidos de América
Number of pages50
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • In-utero weather
  • Energy use
  • Climate change


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