Informal sector competition and firm productivity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle in a journalpeer-review

11 Scopus citations


We provide evidence on whether informal competition has a negative bearing on firm productivity in the formal sector. To do this we employ the World Bank’s Enterprise Survey (WBES) with detailed information for more than sixty thousand manufacturing and services formal firms from over 127 countries. We find a negative association between these two variables, which is further supported when using instrumental variables.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1243-1246
Number of pages4
JournalApplied Economics Letters
Issue number15
Early online date11 Oct 2019
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2020

Bibliographical note

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© 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Productivity
  • competition
  • developing countries
  • informality


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